Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS)

The CNS is an incentive convention that aims to, inter alia, achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide through the enhancement of national measures and international co-operation including, where appropriate, safety-related technical co-operation.

  • Adopted: 17 June 1994
  • Opened for signature: 20 September 1994
  • Entered into force: 24 October 1996
  • Parties: 91 parties (including EURATOM) (see table below)

More information on the CNS, including the text and current status, is available here.

The following articles related to the CNS were published in the Nuclear Law Bulletin and Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law:

  • The Convention on Nuclear Safety, by O. Jankowitsch (NLB 54, p. 9).
  • The IAEA Nuclear Safety Conventions: An example of Successful "Treaty Management", by G. Handl (NLB 72, p. 7).
  • The "Incentive" Concept as Developed in the Nuclear Safety Conventions and its Possible Extension to Other Sectors, by T. De Wright (NLB 80, p. 29).
  • The post-Fukushima Daiichi response: The role of the Convention on Nuclear Safety in strengthening the legal framework for nuclear safety, by P. L. Johnson (NLB 91, p. 7).
  • Towards a new international framework for nuclear safety: Developments from Fukushima to Vienna, by E. Durand‑Poudret (NLB 95, p. 27).
  • Treaty implementation applied to conventions on nuclear safety, by M. Montjoie (NLB 96, p. 9).
  • Inside nuclear baseball: Reflections on the development of the safety conventions, by C. Stoiber (NLB 100, p. 61).
  • The impact of the major nuclear power plant accidents on the international legal framework for nuclear power, by S.G. Burns (NLB 101, p. 7), updated in Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law, p. 83.
  • A perspective on key legal considerations for performance-based regulating, by E. Dandy (NLB 103, p. 7).
  • International legal framework on nuclear safety: Developments, challenges and opportunities, by W. Tonhauser, A. Wetherall and L. Thiele (Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law, p. 121)
  • Regulation, licensing and oversight of nuclear activities, by S.G. Burns, K.S. Nick, C. Raetzke and L. Thiele (Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law, p. 167)


Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety

Albania Czech Republic* Luxembourg Saudi Arabia
Angola Denmark Madagascar Senegal
Argentina* Estonia Mali Serbia
Armenia* Finland* Malta Singapore
Australia France* Mexico* Slovak Republic*
Austria Germany Moldova Slovenia*
Bahrain Ghana Montenegro South Africa*
Bangladesh Greece Morocco Spain*
Belarus* Hungary* Myanmar Sri Lanka
Belgium* Iceland Netherlands* Sweden*
Benin India* Niger Switzerland*
Bolivia Indonesia Nigeria Syrian Arab Republic
Bosnia and Herzegovina Ireland North Macedonia Thailand
Brazil* Italy Norway Tunisia
Bulgaria* Japan* Oman Türkiye
Cambodia Jordan Pakistan* Ukraine*
Canada* Kazakhstan Paraguay United Arab Emirates*
Chile Korea* Peru United Kingdom*
China* Kuwait Poland United States*
Congo Latvia Portugal Uruguay
Croatia Lebanon Qatar Viet Nam
Cuba Libya Romania* EURATOM
Cyprus Lithuania Russia*  

* Country with at least one nuclear power plant in operation.