Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT)

The NPT aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology (non-proliferation), to promote co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy (peaceful uses) and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament (disarmament).


Adopted: 12 June 1968

Opened for signature: 1 July 1968 (London, Moscow and Washington)

Entered into force: 5 March 1970

Extended indefinitely: 11 May 1995

Parties: 191 (see table below)


More information on the NPT, including the text, is available here.

The current status of the NPT is available here.

The following articles related to the NPT were published in the Nuclear Law Bulletin:

  • Non-Proliferation Treaty 1990 Review Conference: Looking Towards 1995, by L. Rockwood (NLB 46, p. 25).
  • Nuclear Testing and the Future of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, by B. M. Carnahan (NLB 49, p. 7).
  • The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: A Permanent Commitment to Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, by L. Rockwood (NLB 56, p. 9).
  • Inspection for Clandestine Nuclear Activities: Does the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty Provide Legal Authority for the IAEA's Proposals for Reform?, by G. Bunn (NLB 57, p. 9).
  • Preventing the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: 50 Years of Atoms for Peace, by T. Vandem Borre and R. Carchon (NLB 57, p. 23).
  • A Short History of Nuclear Non-Proliferation, by B. Sanders (NLB 62, p. 7).
  • The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Process for Its Enhanced Review on the Eve of the 2000 Review Conference, by C. Pinel (NLB 65, p. 13).
  • The Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty and Terrorism: The Consequences of 11 September 2001 on the Treaty Review Process, by G. Arbellot Du Repaire (NLB 71, p. 15).
  • Critical Reflections on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, by Q. Michel (NLB 80, p. 21).
  • Between Shadow and Light: The treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Forty Years On, by A. Biad (NLB 86, p. 5).
  • Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements, by P. Tzeng (NLB 95, p. 41).
  • Towards nuclear disarmament: State of affairs in the international legal framework, by S. Fanielle (NLB 97, p. 35).
  • In search of the elusive conflict: The (in-)compatibility of the Treaties on the Non-Proliferation and Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, by M.J. Moffatt (NLB 102, p. 7).


Parties to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Afghanistan Djibouti Liberia Saint Lucia
Albania Dominica Libya Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Algeria Dominican Republic Liechtenstein Samoa
Andorra Ecuador Lithuania San Marino
Angola Egypt Luxembourg Sao Tome and Principe
Antigua and Barbuda El Salvador Madagascar Saudi Arabia
Argentina* Equatorial Guinea Malawi Senegal
Armenia* Eritrea Malaysia Serbia
Australia Estonia Maldives Seychelles
Austria Eswatini Mali Sierra Leone
Azerbaijan Ethiopia Malta Singapore
Bahamas Fiji Marshall Islands Slovak Republic*
Bahrain Finland* Mauritania Slovenia*
Bangladesh France* Mauritius Solomon Islands
Barbados Gabon Mexico* Somalia
Belarus* Gambia Micronesia South Africa*
Belgium* Georgia Moldova Spain*
Belize Germany* Monaco Sri Lanka
Benin Ghana Mongolia Sudan
Bhutan Greece Montenegro Suriname
Bolivia Grenada Morocco Sweden*
Bosnia and Herzegovina Guatemala Mozambique Switzerland*
Botswana Guinea Myanmar Syrian Arab Republic
Brazil* Guinea-Bissau Namibia Tajikistan
Brunei Darussalam Guyana Nauru Tanzania
Bulgaria* Haiti Nepal Thailand
Burkina Faso Holy See Netherlands* Timor-Leste
Burundi Honduras New Zealand Togo
Cabo Verde Hungary* Nicaragua Tonga
Cambodia Iceland Niger Trinidad and Tobago
Cameroon Indonesia Nigeria Tunisia
Canada* Iran* North Macedonia Türkiye
Central African Republic Iraq Norway Turkmenistan
Chad Ireland Oman Tuvalu
Chile Italy Palau Uganda
China* Jamaica Palestinian Authority Ukraine*
Colombia Japan* Panama United Arab Emirates*
Comoros Jordan Papua New Guinea United Kingdom*
Congo Kazakhstan Paraguay United States*
Costa Rica Kenya Peru Uruguay
Côte d'Ivoire Korea* Philippines Uzbekistan
Croatia Kiribati Poland Vanuatu
Cuba Kuwait Portugal Venezuela
Cyprus Kyrgyzstan Qatar Viet Nam
Czechia* Lao People's Democratic Republic Romania* Yemen
Democratic People's Republic of Korea Latvia Russia* Zambia
Democratic Republic of the Congo Lebanon Rwanda Zimbabwe
Denmark Lesotho Saint Kitts and Nevis  

* Country with at least one nuclear power plant in operation.