Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (Joint Protocol)

The Joint Protocol acts as a bridge between the Paris and Vienna Conventions, effectively extending the benefits provided by one convention to victims in countries that have joined the other convention.

  • Adopted: 21 September 1988
  • Opened for signature: 21 September 1988
  • Entered into force: 27 April 1992
  • Parties: 34 (see table below – "PC" or "VC" indicates that a state is a party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention respectively)

More information on the Joint Protocol, including the text and current status, is available here.

The following is a sampling of the articles related to the Joint Convention that have been published in the Nuclear Law Bulletin and Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law:

  • A Bridge Between two Conventions on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage: the Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, by O. Von Busekist (NLB 43, p. 10).
  • The Brussels I Regulation and Liability for Nuclear Damage, by J. Handrlica (NLB 86, p. 29).
  • Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime (NLB 93, p. 9).
  • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments on civil liability for nuclear damage, by U. Magnus (NLB 106, p. 7).
  • Applicability of the existing nuclear liability conventions to different types of small modular reactors currently under development, by V. Roland (NLB 110, p. 7).
  • Liability and compensation for third party damage resulting from a nuclear incident, by J.A. Schwartz (Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law, p. 409)


Parties to the Joint Protocol to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention

Benin (VC)

Finland* (PC)

Montenegro (VC)

Sweden* (PC)

Bulgaria* (VC)

France* (PC) Morocco (VC) Switzerland* (PC)

Cameroon (VC)

Germany (PC) Netherlands* (PC) Türkiye (PC)

Chile (VC)

Ghana (VC) Norway (PC) Ukraine* (VC)

Croatia (VC)

Greece (PC) Poland (VC) United Arab Emirates* (VC)

Czechia* (VC)

Hungary* (VC) Romania* (VC) Uruguay (VC)

Denmark (PC)

Italy (PC) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (VC) Zimbabwe (VC)

Egypt (VC)

Latvia (VC) Slovak Republic* (VC)  

Estonia (VC)

Lithuania (VC)

Slovenia* (PC)


* Country with at least one nuclear power plant in operation.