Protocol to Amend the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1997 Vienna Protocol)

The 1997 Vienna Protocol improves the original regime by requiring that more money be made available to compensate more victims for a broad range of damages.

  • Adopted: 12 September 1997
  • Opened for signature: 29 September 1997
  • Entered into force: 4 October 2003
  • Parties: 17 (see table below)

More information on of the 1997 Vienna Protocol, including the text and current status, is available here.

The following is a sampling of the articles related to the 1997 Vienna Protocol that have been published in the Nuclear Law Bulletin and Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law:

  • Vienna Convention Revision: A Review of the Exercise and Insurance Implications in the Provisions under Discussion, by G.C. Warren (NLB 55, p. 9).
  • The Protocol Amending the 1963 Vienna Convention, by V. Lamm (NLB 61, p. 7).
  • Maritime Zones and the New Provisions on Jurisdiction in the 1997 Vienna Protocol and in the 1997 Convention on Supplementary Compensation, by A. Gioia (NLB 63, p. 25).
  • Revised Paris and Vienna Nuclear Liability Conventions – Challenges for Insurers, by M. Tetley (NLB 77, p. 27).
  • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments on civil liability for nuclear damage, by U. Magnus (NLB 106, p. 7).
  • The qualification of nuclear substances and nuclear liability, by E. de Boissieu (NLB 108/109, p. 77).
  • Applicability of the existing nuclear liability conventions to different types of small modular reactors currently under development, by V. Roland (NLB 110, p. 7).
  • Liability and compensation for third party damage resulting from a nuclear incident, by J.A. Schwartz (Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law, p. 409).
  • Insurance of nuclear risks, by S. M. S. Reitsma and M. G. Tetley (Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law, p. 445).


Parties to the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage
Argentina* Jordan Niger Uruguay**
Belarus* Kazakhstan Poland Zimbabwe
Benin Latvia Romania*  
Bosnia and Herzegovina Montenegro Saudi Arabia  
Ghana Morocco United Arab Emirates*  

* Country with at least one nuclear power plant in operation.

** Subject to an entry into force date of 17 July 2024.